E-ISSN 0976-2833 | ISSN 0975-3583
 

Original Research 


Relationship of Rheumatoid Arthritis with Microbial Pathogens (TORCH Test), Case-control Study in Iraq

Layth Abbas Al-Hatemi, Raad A. Kadhim, Abeer F. Al-Rubaye.

Abstract
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the joints and many factors are involved in the emergence and progression of the disease, including genetics and environmental factors, among the latter factors are the infectious agents, which have not been proven accurately to date, which necessitated this study to identify the role of some different pathogens in the occurrence of the disease. Seventy-five serum samples (62 females, 13 males) were taken for patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, 30 of whom were receiving methotrexate (MTX) therapy, in addition to some auxiliary medications, and 45 others who had not received any treatment except pain relievers, from Al-Sadr Teaching Hospital in Najaf Governorate / Iraq. The ages of patients ranged 26 -73 years, in addition to 23 healthy people (15 females, 13 males) within the control group, collected from separate areas of the same governorate and the ages ranged 32-64 years. Serological investigation of IgM and IgG antibody was performed using TORCH Panel Rapid Test which includes Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella virus (RV) Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), and Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2). The results showed that there was significant increase in the prevalence of IgG antibody for both RV and CMV in rheumatoid arthritis patients, and the proportion was 70.6% and 48%, respectively, compared to the healthy group which was 34.7% and 0%, respectively. The prevalence rate of IgM seropositive antibody was 0% for all above pathogens except for one case for HSV-1 in RA patients. Statistical analysis of Chi-Square also showed significant differences in the prevalence of IgG antibody for only both the RV and CMV between the three study groups (the group of patients receiving MTX treatment and the group of patients without treatment and the control group). The IgG positive antibody ratio for both Rv and CMV was higher for females than males, while no significant differences were seen in other pathogens. As a final outcome of our study, it found a positive relationship between presence of serum IgG, which represents chronic infection of rubella, and Cytomegalovirus with rheumatoid arthritis, which proves the role of infection factors in the emergence of autoimmune diseases.

Key words: Rheumatoid Arthritis, Torch Test, Microbial Pathogens, Cytomegalovirus, Methotrexate.


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by Layth Abbas Al-Hatemi
Articles by Raad A. Kadhim
Articles by Abeer F. Al-Rubaye
on Google
on Google Scholar


How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Layth Abbas Al-Hatemi, Raad A. Kadhim, Abeer F. Al-Rubaye. Relationship of Rheumatoid Arthritis with Microbial Pathogens (TORCH Test), Case-control Study in Iraq. doi:10.31838/jcdr.2020.11.04.41


Web Style

Layth Abbas Al-Hatemi, Raad A. Kadhim, Abeer F. Al-Rubaye. Relationship of Rheumatoid Arthritis with Microbial Pathogens (TORCH Test), Case-control Study in Iraq. http://www.jcdronline.org//?mno=17838 [Access: October 26, 2020]. doi:10.31838/jcdr.2020.11.04.41


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Layth Abbas Al-Hatemi, Raad A. Kadhim, Abeer F. Al-Rubaye. Relationship of Rheumatoid Arthritis with Microbial Pathogens (TORCH Test), Case-control Study in Iraq. doi:10.31838/jcdr.2020.11.04.41



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Layth Abbas Al-Hatemi, Raad A. Kadhim, Abeer F. Al-Rubaye. Relationship of Rheumatoid Arthritis with Microbial Pathogens (TORCH Test), Case-control Study in Iraq. doi:10.31838/jcdr.2020.11.04.41



Harvard Style

Layth Abbas Al-Hatemi, Raad A. Kadhim, Abeer F. Al-Rubaye (2020) Relationship of Rheumatoid Arthritis with Microbial Pathogens (TORCH Test), Case-control Study in Iraq. doi:10.31838/jcdr.2020.11.04.41



Turabian Style

Layth Abbas Al-Hatemi, Raad A. Kadhim, Abeer F. Al-Rubaye. 2020. Relationship of Rheumatoid Arthritis with Microbial Pathogens (TORCH Test), Case-control Study in Iraq. doi:10.31838/jcdr.2020.11.04.41



Chicago Style

Layth Abbas Al-Hatemi, Raad A. Kadhim, Abeer F. Al-Rubaye. "Relationship of Rheumatoid Arthritis with Microbial Pathogens (TORCH Test), Case-control Study in Iraq." doi:10.31838/jcdr.2020.11.04.41



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Layth Abbas Al-Hatemi, Raad A. Kadhim, Abeer F. Al-Rubaye. "Relationship of Rheumatoid Arthritis with Microbial Pathogens (TORCH Test), Case-control Study in Iraq." doi:10.31838/jcdr.2020.11.04.41



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Layth Abbas Al-Hatemi, Raad A. Kadhim, Abeer F. Al-Rubaye (2020) Relationship of Rheumatoid Arthritis with Microbial Pathogens (TORCH Test), Case-control Study in Iraq. doi:10.31838/jcdr.2020.11.04.41





Most Viewed Articles
  • Reduced nitrate level in individuals with hypertension and diabetes
    Shiekh Gazalla Ayub, Taha Ayub, Saquib Naveed Khan, Rubiya Dar, Khurshid Iqbal Andrabi
    . 2011; 2(3): 172-176
    » Abstract » doi: 10.4103/0975-3583.85264

  • Factor analysis of risk variables associated with metabolic syndrome in adult Asian Indians
    Mithun Das, Susil Pal, Arnab Ghosh
    . 2010; 1(2): 86-91
    » Abstract » doi: 10.4103/0975-3583.64442

  • Putative antioxidant property of sesame oil in an oxidative stress model of myocardial injury
    Mohamed T.S. Saleem , Madhusudhana C. Chetty , S. Kavimani
    . 2013; 4(3): 177-181
    » Abstract » doi: 10.1016/j.jcdr.2013.07.001

  • Medical and Social Characteristics and Quality of Life of Children with Urinary System Diseases (on the Example of Urinary System Infection)
    A.A. Maksimova, N.V. Savvina, N.M. Gogolev, A.I. Protopopova
    . 2020; 11(2): 194-201
    » Abstract » doi: 10.31838/jcdr.2020.11.02.33

  • Combined Abdominal Sacrocolporectopexy as Re-Operation for Repeated Multi-Compartment Pelvic Prolapse
    Vladimir F. Kulikovsky, Natalia V. Oleynik, Arina P. Krivchikova, Natalia N. Bratisheva
    . 2020; 11(4): 81-86
    » Abstract » doi: 10.31838/jcdr.2020.11.04.14

  • Most Downloaded
  • Diabetic Retinopathy, The Automated of Detection of Retinal Fundus Images with Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNN)
    Elvina Amanda, Marischa Elveny, Rahmad Syah
    . 2020; 11(4): 302-306
    » Abstract » doi: 10.31838/jcdr.2020.11.04.54

  • Assessment of the Knowledge and Attitude of Male Students towards Smoking Based on Health Belief Model
    Rafat Rezapour-Nasrabad, Fatemeh Izadi, Atousa Karimi, Fateme Shariati Far, Khatereh Rostami, Amin Kiani, Afsaneh Ghasemi
    . 2020; 11(4): 116-121
    » Abstract » doi: 10.31838/jcdr.2020.11.04.20

  • Investigation of the Relationship between Social Support and Adherence to Treatment among Elderly Individuals with Type II Diabetes Mellitus
    Afsaneh Ghasemi, Rafat Rezapour-Nasrabad, Leila Nikrouz, Fatemeh Izadi, Atousa Karimi, Fateme Shariati Far, Zahra Khiali
    . 2020; 11(4): 122-129
    » Abstract » doi: 10.31838/jcdr.2020.11.04.21

  • Cardio-Vascular Disease Classification Using Stacked Segmentation Model and Convolutional Neural Networks
    G. Charlyn Pushpa Latha, S. Sridhar, S. Prithi, T. Anitha
    . 2020; 11(4): 26-31
    » Abstract » doi: 10.31838/jcdr.2020.11.04.05

  • Strategic DOTS to Increase Medical Knowledge for the Treatment of TB Patients
    Elvina Amanda, Marischa Elveny, Rahmad Syah
    . 2020; 11(4): 296-301
    » Abstract » doi: 10.31838/jcdr.2020.11.04.53

  • Most Cited Articles