E-ISSN 0976-2833 | ISSN 0975-3583
 

Research Article 


SEX DETERMINATION OF FEMUR:A MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF MAXIMUM LENGTH OF FEMUR AND FEMORAL HEAD DIAMETER

Dr.Pawan Kumar Mahato, Abdul Gaffar, Dr.Anand Bihari, Ankit Srivastava.

Abstract
The thigh bone or femur, is the body's longest and strongest bone. It supports the thigh's skeletal structure. It is made
up of three parts: a proximal end, a shaft and a distal end. The proximal end of the femur has a head, a neck and two
massive projections known as the greater trochanter and lesser trochanter on the upper part of the shaft.
Its length corresponds to striding gait, while its strength corresponds to weight and muscular forces1. Since it shows
considerable variation between individuals, it is widely studied to establish stature and locomotion pattern in skeletal
remains for sex recognition2. It is most likely to withstand environmental effects and animal movements due to its
robustness and strength3.
Bones are an integral part of determining a person's biological profile. The determination of sex is the first step in
constructing a profile and defining an individual's identity, as subsequent methods of determining age and stature are
highly sex dependent3. The most sexually dimorphic bones are the skull and pelvis but, in their absence, sex must be
determined from available bones4. Long bones are often found in good condition. The femur is the most sexually
dimorphic of the three. The causes for this may be numerous, including variations in pelvic morphology caused by
greater pelvic width in females, which is affected by reproductive function1.Body size and proportions are
influenced by genetic variations, as are differences in musculature5,6. Female femora are normally shorter and have
more obliquity than male femora. The typical male long bones are larger, longer, rougher and more massive than the
typical female long bones. The study of sexual dimorphism is based on the idea that the male's axial skeleton weight
is comparatively and completely heavier than the female's and that the femur bears the brunt of this weight in the
transmission of body weight1,7.As a result, in today's world of rising crime, fatalities and mass disasters, witnessing
human skeletal remains is becoming more common; the femur can play a key role in deciding sex.

Key words: The acetabulum of the pelvic bone articulates with the spherical head of the femur. It has a non-articular pit called the fovea on its medial surface that attaches to the round ligament of the femur head


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Dr.Pawan Kumar Mahato, Abdul Gaffar, Dr.Anand Bihari, Ankit Srivastava. SEX DETERMINATION OF FEMUR:A MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF MAXIMUM LENGTH OF FEMUR AND FEMORAL HEAD DIAMETER. J Cardiovasc. Dis. Res.. 2021; 12(5): 794-797. doi:10.31838/jcdr.2021.12.05.109


Web Style

Dr.Pawan Kumar Mahato, Abdul Gaffar, Dr.Anand Bihari, Ankit Srivastava. SEX DETERMINATION OF FEMUR:A MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF MAXIMUM LENGTH OF FEMUR AND FEMORAL HEAD DIAMETER. http://www.jcdronline.org/?mno=119974 [Access: September 04, 2021]. doi:10.31838/jcdr.2021.12.05.109


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Dr.Pawan Kumar Mahato, Abdul Gaffar, Dr.Anand Bihari, Ankit Srivastava. SEX DETERMINATION OF FEMUR:A MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF MAXIMUM LENGTH OF FEMUR AND FEMORAL HEAD DIAMETER. J Cardiovasc. Dis. Res.. 2021; 12(5): 794-797. doi:10.31838/jcdr.2021.12.05.109



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Dr.Pawan Kumar Mahato, Abdul Gaffar, Dr.Anand Bihari, Ankit Srivastava. SEX DETERMINATION OF FEMUR:A MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF MAXIMUM LENGTH OF FEMUR AND FEMORAL HEAD DIAMETER. J Cardiovasc. Dis. Res.. (2021), [cited September 04, 2021]; 12(5): 794-797. doi:10.31838/jcdr.2021.12.05.109



Harvard Style

Dr.Pawan Kumar Mahato, Abdul Gaffar, Dr.Anand Bihari, Ankit Srivastava (2021) SEX DETERMINATION OF FEMUR:A MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF MAXIMUM LENGTH OF FEMUR AND FEMORAL HEAD DIAMETER. J Cardiovasc. Dis. Res., 12 (5), 794-797. doi:10.31838/jcdr.2021.12.05.109



Turabian Style

Dr.Pawan Kumar Mahato, Abdul Gaffar, Dr.Anand Bihari, Ankit Srivastava. 2021. SEX DETERMINATION OF FEMUR:A MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF MAXIMUM LENGTH OF FEMUR AND FEMORAL HEAD DIAMETER. Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research, 12 (5), 794-797. doi:10.31838/jcdr.2021.12.05.109



Chicago Style

Dr.Pawan Kumar Mahato, Abdul Gaffar, Dr.Anand Bihari, Ankit Srivastava. "SEX DETERMINATION OF FEMUR:A MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF MAXIMUM LENGTH OF FEMUR AND FEMORAL HEAD DIAMETER." Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research 12 (2021), 794-797. doi:10.31838/jcdr.2021.12.05.109



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Dr.Pawan Kumar Mahato, Abdul Gaffar, Dr.Anand Bihari, Ankit Srivastava. "SEX DETERMINATION OF FEMUR:A MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF MAXIMUM LENGTH OF FEMUR AND FEMORAL HEAD DIAMETER." Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research 12.5 (2021), 794-797. Print. doi:10.31838/jcdr.2021.12.05.109



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Dr.Pawan Kumar Mahato, Abdul Gaffar, Dr.Anand Bihari, Ankit Srivastava (2021) SEX DETERMINATION OF FEMUR:A MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF MAXIMUM LENGTH OF FEMUR AND FEMORAL HEAD DIAMETER. Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research, 12 (5), 794-797. doi:10.31838/jcdr.2021.12.05.109





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