E-ISSN 0976-2833 | ISSN 0975-3583
 

Research Article 


Incidence Risk and Cumulative Risk of COVID-19 Infection among Healthcare Workers over the First Year of the Pandemic

Abdullah Jaber Alsahafi, Mashal Misfir Alsayali, Abdullah Mohammed Algarni, Nagham Khalid Abdulrahman, Nidal Abduljaleel Tashkandy, Moutaz Mansour Wali, Rami Abdullah Altowergi, Anwar Ali Alzahrani, Faten Mohammed Felemban, Seadah Masad Almutairi, Tahani Saleh Saeed Alshehri, Sarah Khayat, Reem Jameel Mesari, Wafa Ahamd Basfr, Sultan Hassan Hamzah Albarqi, Manal Fahad Hazzaa Alharbi, Hisham Yahya Alghamdi, Afra Yousef S Kulthum, Rula Hasen Mohammed Felemban.

Abstract
Objectives
To analyze the spread rate and the cumulative risk of COVID-19 infection among
healthcare workers (HCWs) over the first year of the pandemic.
Method
An online, cross-sectional study involved HCWs who were in-service during the first
year of COVID-19 crisis, including all healthcare institutions of Jeddah. History and
date of COVID-19 infection were collected to estimate the COVID-19-free time, by
reference to 03 March 2020, when the first case in Saudi Arabia was identified.
Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression methods were used to analyze the
cumulative risk of COVID-19 infection and the associated factors.
Results
There were three peaks of COVID-19 incidence among HCWs; the highest (7.2%)
was in September 2020. The cumulative hazard reached 0.10 by the first trimester,
then escalated exponentially during the 3rd trimester to reach a plateau at 0.35. The
hazard ratio was independently associated with the HCWs nationality, department
affiliation, and receipt of influenza vaccine, as well as the facility type and bed
capacity. Receipt of the BCG vaccine in the last year was associated with 40%
reduction of the cumulative hazard.
Conclusion
The identified risk factors and high-exposure clusters constitute a weak link in the
national management strategy of COVID-19 crisis and highlight the urgent need to
reinforce the in-hospital protective measures. Findings from the present study have
strong implication for the viability and resilience of the healthcare system during
major health crises.

Key words: .


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Alsahafi AJ, Alsayali MM, Algarni AM, Abdulrahman NK, Tashkandy NA, Wali MM, Altowergi RA, Alzahrani AA, Felemban FM, Almutairi SM, Alshehri TSS, Khayat S, Mesari RJ, Basfr WA, Albarqi SHH, Alharbi MFH, Alghamdi HY, Kulthum AYS, Felemban RHM. Incidence Risk and Cumulative Risk of COVID-19 Infection among Healthcare Workers over the First Year of the Pandemic. J Cardiovasc. Dis. Res.. 2022; 13(1): 1-18. doi:10.31838/jcdr.2022.13.01.01


Web Style

Alsahafi AJ, Alsayali MM, Algarni AM, Abdulrahman NK, Tashkandy NA, Wali MM, Altowergi RA, Alzahrani AA, Felemban FM, Almutairi SM, Alshehri TSS, Khayat S, Mesari RJ, Basfr WA, Albarqi SHH, Alharbi MFH, Alghamdi HY, Kulthum AYS, Felemban RHM. Incidence Risk and Cumulative Risk of COVID-19 Infection among Healthcare Workers over the First Year of the Pandemic. http://www.jcdronline.org/?mno=140962 [Access: January 15, 2022]. doi:10.31838/jcdr.2022.13.01.01


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Alsahafi AJ, Alsayali MM, Algarni AM, Abdulrahman NK, Tashkandy NA, Wali MM, Altowergi RA, Alzahrani AA, Felemban FM, Almutairi SM, Alshehri TSS, Khayat S, Mesari RJ, Basfr WA, Albarqi SHH, Alharbi MFH, Alghamdi HY, Kulthum AYS, Felemban RHM. Incidence Risk and Cumulative Risk of COVID-19 Infection among Healthcare Workers over the First Year of the Pandemic. J Cardiovasc. Dis. Res.. 2022; 13(1): 1-18. doi:10.31838/jcdr.2022.13.01.01



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Alsahafi AJ, Alsayali MM, Algarni AM, Abdulrahman NK, Tashkandy NA, Wali MM, Altowergi RA, Alzahrani AA, Felemban FM, Almutairi SM, Alshehri TSS, Khayat S, Mesari RJ, Basfr WA, Albarqi SHH, Alharbi MFH, Alghamdi HY, Kulthum AYS, Felemban RHM. Incidence Risk and Cumulative Risk of COVID-19 Infection among Healthcare Workers over the First Year of the Pandemic. J Cardiovasc. Dis. Res.. (2022), [cited January 15, 2022]; 13(1): 1-18. doi:10.31838/jcdr.2022.13.01.01



Harvard Style

Alsahafi, A. J., Alsayali, . M. M., Algarni, . A. M., Abdulrahman, . N. K., Tashkandy, . N. A., Wali, . M. M., Altowergi, . R. A., Alzahrani, . A. A., Felemban, . F. M., Almutairi, . S. M., Alshehri, . T. S. S., Khayat, . S., Mesari, . R. J., Basfr, . W. A., Albarqi, . S. H. H., Alharbi, . M. F. H., Alghamdi, . H. Y., Kulthum, . A. Y. S. & Felemban, . R. H. M. (2022) Incidence Risk and Cumulative Risk of COVID-19 Infection among Healthcare Workers over the First Year of the Pandemic. J Cardiovasc. Dis. Res., 13 (1), 1-18. doi:10.31838/jcdr.2022.13.01.01



Turabian Style

Alsahafi, Abdullah Jaber, Mashal Misfir Alsayali, Abdullah Mohammed Algarni, Nagham Khalid Abdulrahman, Nidal Abduljaleel Tashkandy, Moutaz Mansour Wali, Rami Abdullah Altowergi, Anwar Ali Alzahrani, Faten Mohammed Felemban, Seadah Masad Almutairi, Tahani Saleh Saeed Alshehri, Sarah Khayat, Reem Jameel Mesari, Wafa Ahamd Basfr, Sultan Hassan Hamzah Albarqi, Manal Fahad Hazzaa Alharbi, Hisham Yahya Alghamdi, Afra Yousef S Kulthum, and Rula Hasen Mohammed Felemban. 2022. Incidence Risk and Cumulative Risk of COVID-19 Infection among Healthcare Workers over the First Year of the Pandemic. Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research, 13 (1), 1-18. doi:10.31838/jcdr.2022.13.01.01



Chicago Style

Alsahafi, Abdullah Jaber, Mashal Misfir Alsayali, Abdullah Mohammed Algarni, Nagham Khalid Abdulrahman, Nidal Abduljaleel Tashkandy, Moutaz Mansour Wali, Rami Abdullah Altowergi, Anwar Ali Alzahrani, Faten Mohammed Felemban, Seadah Masad Almutairi, Tahani Saleh Saeed Alshehri, Sarah Khayat, Reem Jameel Mesari, Wafa Ahamd Basfr, Sultan Hassan Hamzah Albarqi, Manal Fahad Hazzaa Alharbi, Hisham Yahya Alghamdi, Afra Yousef S Kulthum, and Rula Hasen Mohammed Felemban. "Incidence Risk and Cumulative Risk of COVID-19 Infection among Healthcare Workers over the First Year of the Pandemic." Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research 13 (2022), 1-18. doi:10.31838/jcdr.2022.13.01.01



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Alsahafi, Abdullah Jaber, Mashal Misfir Alsayali, Abdullah Mohammed Algarni, Nagham Khalid Abdulrahman, Nidal Abduljaleel Tashkandy, Moutaz Mansour Wali, Rami Abdullah Altowergi, Anwar Ali Alzahrani, Faten Mohammed Felemban, Seadah Masad Almutairi, Tahani Saleh Saeed Alshehri, Sarah Khayat, Reem Jameel Mesari, Wafa Ahamd Basfr, Sultan Hassan Hamzah Albarqi, Manal Fahad Hazzaa Alharbi, Hisham Yahya Alghamdi, Afra Yousef S Kulthum, and Rula Hasen Mohammed Felemban. "Incidence Risk and Cumulative Risk of COVID-19 Infection among Healthcare Workers over the First Year of the Pandemic." Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research 13.1 (2022), 1-18. Print. doi:10.31838/jcdr.2022.13.01.01



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Alsahafi, A. J., Alsayali, . M. M., Algarni, . A. M., Abdulrahman, . N. K., Tashkandy, . N. A., Wali, . M. M., Altowergi, . R. A., Alzahrani, . A. A., Felemban, . F. M., Almutairi, . S. M., Alshehri, . T. S. S., Khayat, . S., Mesari, . R. J., Basfr, . W. A., Albarqi, . S. H. H., Alharbi, . M. F. H., Alghamdi, . H. Y., Kulthum, . A. Y. S. & Felemban, . R. H. M. (2022) Incidence Risk and Cumulative Risk of COVID-19 Infection among Healthcare Workers over the First Year of the Pandemic. Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research, 13 (1), 1-18. doi:10.31838/jcdr.2022.13.01.01





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