ISSN 0975-3583

Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research

    Diagnostic Utility of Fine Needle Aspiration in A Spectrum of Cytology Cases in a Tertiary Health Care Center of Central India

    Dr. Bhanu Pratap Singh, Dr. Sujata Singh, Dr. Rashmi Gupta, Dr. Sadhana Bagde, Dr. Superna Ganguly
    JCDR. 2024: 692-704


    Fine needle aspiration cytology is a simple, inexpensive method for obtaining a tissue diagnosis of disease site. FNAC has become a well-established diagnostic component in the medical field. It has become an accepted technique for the preoperative diagnosis of palpable and radiographically detected lesions at a wide variety of body sites. The technique is relatively painless, produces a speedy result and is inexpensive. In experienced hands its accuracy can approach that of histopathology in arriving at a definite diagnosis. Method The present retrospective study included total number of 768 fine needle aspiration cytology cases which came to Cytology section of Department of Pathology, Chhattisgarh Institute of Medical Sciences. The patients were clinically evaluated and underwent routine hematological, biochemical and radiological investigations. After performing the fine needle aspiration, the smears were stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG), hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) and papanicolau (Pap) stains. No major complications like penetration into the trachea, laryngeal nerve palsy, or hematoma were recorded. Only slight pain was reported by some patients. Results In our study we have included a total number of 768 cases. A broad classification included cases from Soft tissue lesions (217 cases), lymph node (184 cases), Breast (149 cases), Thyroid (137 cases), Salivary gland (56 cases) and Neck lesions(25 cases). The most common soft tissue lesion was lipoma (72 cases). Cystic/ infective lesions were the second most common ones. In lymph nodes maximum cases were of reactive lymphadenitis (53 cases) followed by tubercular lymphadenitis (57 cases). In 149 breast fine needle aspiration cytology we had 75 benign cases, 16 Atypical ductal hyperplasia and 58 malignant cases. FNA of thyroidal lesions yielded Benign colloid nodule (30 cases), Nodular goitre (24 cases) and Autoimmune thyroiditis (36 cases). In malignant lesions of thyroid, we found Follicular carcinoma (9 cases), Follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (14 cases), Papillary carcinoma (16 cases), Medullary carcinoma (5 cases) and Anaplastic carcinoma (3 cases). In salivary gland lesions benign cases included Chronic sialadenitis (16 cases), Pleomorphic adenoma (9 cases), Mucinous cyst (8 cases), Granulomatous sialadenitis (3 cases), Sialadenosis (5 cases) and Warthin’s tumor (3cases). Malignant cases were of Acinic cell carcinoma (4 cases), Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (3 cases), Squamous cell carcinoma (3 cases) and Adenocarcinoma NOS (2 cases). Other lesion in neck included Thyroglossal cyst (14 cases), Branchial cyst (9 cases) and lymphangioma (2 cases). Conclusion This study emphasizes the use of fine needle aspiration cytology as a first line diagnostic procedure for the investigation of lumps or masses. It is a relatively painless, inexpensive and easily accessible procedure for the patients. It readily generates the report and gives an insight into the nature of the lesion prior to the surgery. However, it has its limitations. Definitive treatment such as surgery is carried out only after histological confirmation of cytological findings.


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